A collection of simple recommendations for decent Web application frontends
A Web application's architecture is heavily influenced by the
design decisions, both implicit and explicit, that have been
made by framework developers. Sometimes these decisions are
consciously accepted as being in line with the intended overall
system architecture. More often, though, they are accepted
simply because developers assume they embody the state of the
art of development practices.
ROCA is an attempt to define a set of recommendations —
independent of any particular framework, programming language,
or tooling — that embodies the principles of what we consider to
be good web application architecture. Its purpose is to serve as
a reference, one that can be implemented as-is or be compared to
other approaches to highlight diverging design
ROCA splits into two parts: The server-side
and the client-side architecture.
The server-side consists of
RESTful backends, serving human-readable content as well as
services for machine-to-machine communication, either public or internal.
The client-side focuses on a sustainable and maintainable usage of
Enhancement. This technique is pursued by nearly every basic
web technology, e.g. HTML or HTTP.
Client and server are largely independent
from, yet complement each other.
- The server application adheres to
REST principles, i.e. it exposes a set of
resources that are meaningful to a user sitting in
front of a browser, each resource has its own URI, all
of the information necessary for handling a request is
contained within the request itself, HTTP methods are used
in line with their definition, and the resource state
is maintained by the server (stateless
- All application logic resides
on the server. [application-logic]
- The client interacts with the server through
RESTful HTTP requests. [http]
- A user must be able to link to a specific
piece of information, e.g. by copying the address from the
browser's address bar and pasting it into an e-mail,
creating a bookmark, or using any of the fancier ways to
share URIs. [link]
- It must be possible to use
the server's logic through user agents other than a browser,
e.g. a command-line client such as curl or
- Resources have additional representations in other formats, e.g.
JSON and/or XML. [should-formats]
- All authenticated communication relies on HTTP
Basic or Digest Authentication, typically combined
with SSL, possibly with client
certificates. Alternatively, because of the limits of
browser-native authentication (e.g. no logout, no
styling), form-based authentication in conjunction
with cookies can be used. If cookies are used, they
should include all of the state needed for the server
to process them, and another authentication mechanism
should be supported for non-browser
- Cookies may not be used for purposes other than
authentication or user tracking. [cookies]
- There may not be any session state beyond
what’s needed for simple algorithmic validation of
authentication information. [session]
- The browser controls like the back, forward
and refresh buttons must work as expected.
I.e. the back button should take the users where they
expect to be taken to (the last meaningful resource they
A browser refresh should not cause a re-rendering of the login or
home page instead of the page the user was looking at, or a
(to the user) unexpected question about wanting to
submit the same data again (when the user doesn't recall
submitting any data, indicating a mis-use of the POST verb).
- The server returns structured semantic HTML markup that is
independent of layout information and client behavior.
- It must be possible to access each page's information
and functionality by using accessibility tools like screen readers.
CSS is used for formatting and layout. This is done following the
principles of progressive enhancement, e.g. to allow
a browser not capable of CSS3 features still to use a CSS3-based site.
- In line with the principles
and the application remains usable (albeit with a
- The same functionality must not be implemented
Thus, due to the application logic
requirement, application logic must not reside on the client-side.
- The server code may not "know" the
HTML structures the client code generates (beyond CSS) or
vice versa. Exceptions are some well defined HTML structures the server
generates to initialize the client functionality above.
and must not be dynamically generated by the server in
a form specific to the resource requested.
(Note that this does not prohibit the use of preprocessors
like CoffeeScript or
as the respective code is usually pre-compiled as part of the release
- Any dynamic routing or URI state
side should use the HTML5 History API.
is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License